A trivial topic. But some things are not like riding a bicycle, so it’s better repeating them over and over again.
First column: shows permissions in the order:
*Special permissions ( 1 field) – in the case of the cats file it is “d”, which actually means that cats is not a file but a directory
*Owner permissions ( 3 fields) – the owner of the file. It can be it’s creator, or it can be manually modified.
*Group permissions (3 fields)
*Other’s permissions (3 fields) – all the rest users and applications
Second column: Owner’s username – In the case of cat.txt file it is cat.
Third column: Group’s name – in the case of cat.txt is fefe
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