Kali Linux commands cheat sheet

All basic commands from A to Z in Kali Linux has been listed below. A apropos : Search Help manual pages (man -k) apt-get : Search for and install software packages (Debian/Ubuntu) aptitude : Search for and install software packages (Debian/Ubuntu) aspell : Spell Checker awk : Find and Replace text, database sort/validate/index B basename … Continue reading Kali Linux commands cheat sheet


How Java Differs From C And C++

Although Java was modeled after C and C++ languages, it differs from C and C++ in many ways. Java does not i a number of features available in C and C++. For the benefit of C and C++ programmers, we point out here a few major differences between C/C++ and Java language How Java Differs … Continue reading How Java Differs From C And C++

Understanding Linux File Permissions

IP unreachables

A trivial topic. But some things are not like riding a bicycle, so it’s better repeating them over and over again.

To start with, let’s take a look of the output ( ls -l lists all files in a directory, giving you details about the size and the permissions) :lsl

First column: shows permissions in the order:
*Special permissions ( 1 field) – in the case of the cats file it is “d”, which actually means that cats is not a file but a directory
*Owner permissions ( 3 fields) –
the owner of the file. It can be it’s creator, or it can be manually modified. 
*Group permissions (3 fields) 

*Other’s permissions (3 fields) –
all the rest users and applications

Second column: Owner’s username – In the case of cat.txt file it is cat.
Third column: Group’s name –
 in the case of cat.txt is fefe

Special permissions.

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