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Monthly Archives: August 2015

Kali Linux commands cheat sheet

All basic commands from A to Z in Kali Linux has been listed below.

A
apropos : Search Help manual pages (man -k)
apt-get : Search for and install software packages (Debian/Ubuntu)
aptitude : Search for and install software packages (Debian/Ubuntu)
aspell : Spell Checker
awk : Find and Replace text, database sort/validate/index
B
basename : Strip directory and suffix from filenames
bash : GNU Bourne-Again SHell
bc : Arbitrary precision calculator language
bg : Send to background
break : Exit from a loop
builtin : Run a shell builtin
bzip2 : Compress or decompress named file(s)
C
cal : Display a calendar
case : Conditionally perform a command
cat : Concatenate and print (display) the content of files
cd : Change Directory
cfdisk : Partition table manipulator for Linux
chgrp : Change group ownership
chmod : Change access permissions
chown : Change file owner and group
chroot : Run a command with a different root directory
chkconfig : System services (runlevel)
cksum : Print CRC checksum and byte counts
clear : Clear terminal screen
cmp : Compare two files
comm : Compare two sorted files line by line
command : Run a command – ignoring shell functions •
continue : Resume the next iteration of a loop •
cp : Copy one or more files to another location
cron : Daemon to execute scheduled commands
crontab : Schedule a command to run at a later time
csplit : Split a file into context-determined pieces
cut : Divide a file into several parts
D
date : Display or change the date & time
dc : Desk Calculator
dd : Convert and copy a file, write disk headers, boot records
ddrescue : Data recovery tool
declare : Declare variables and give them attributes •
df : Display free disk space
diff : Display the differences between two files
diff3 : Show differences among three files
dig : DNS lookup
dir : Briefly list directory contents
dircolors : Colour setup for `ls’
dirname : Convert a full pathname to just a path
dirs : Display list of remembered directories
dmesg : Print kernel & driver messages
du : Estimate file space usage
E
echo : Display message on screen •
egrep : Search file(s) for lines that match an extended expression
eject : Eject removable media
enable : Enable and disable builtin shell commands •
env : Environment variables
ethtool : Ethernet card settings
eval : Evaluate several commands/arguments
exec : Execute a command
exit : Exit the shell
expect : Automate arbitrary applications accessed over a terminal
expand : Convert tabs to spaces
export : Set an environment variable
expr : Evaluate expressions
F
false : Do nothing, unsuccessfully
fdformat : Low-level format a floppy disk
fdisk : Partition table manipulator for Linux
fg : Send job to foreground
fgrep : Search file(s) for lines that match a fixed string
file : Determine file type
find : Search for files that meet a desired criteria
fmt : Reformat paragraph text
fold : Wrap text to fit a specified width.
for : Expand words, and execute commands
format : Format disks or tapes
free : Display memory usage
fsck : File system consistency check and repair
ftp : File Transfer Protocol
function : Define Function Macros
fuser : Identify/kill the process that is accessing a file
G
gawk : Find and Replace text within file(s)
getopts : Parse positional parameters
grep : Search file(s) for lines that match a given pattern
groupadd : Add a user security group
groupdel : Delete a group
groupmod : Modify a group
groups : Print group names a user is in
gzip : Compress or decompress named file(s)
H
hash : Remember the full pathname of a name argument
head : Output the first part of file(s)
help : Display help for a built-in command
history : Command History
hostname : Print or set system name
I
iconv : Convert the character set of a file
id : Print user and group id’s
if : Conditionally perform a command
ifconfig : Configure a network interface
ifdown : Stop a network interface
ifup : Start a network interface up
import : Capture an X server screen and save the image to file
install : Copy files and set attributes
J
jobs : List active jobs
join : Join lines on a common field
K
kill : Stop a process from running
killall : Kill processes by name
L
less : Display output one screen at a time
let : Perform arithmetic on shell variables
ln : Create a symbolic link to a file
local : Create variables
locate : Find files
logname : Print current login name
logout : Exit a login shell
look : Display lines beginning with a given string
lpc : Line printer control program
lpr : Off line print
lprint : Print a file
lprintd : Abort a print job
lprintq : List the print queue
lprm : Remove jobs from the print queue
ls : List information about file(s)
lsof : List open files
M
make : Recompile a group of programs
man : Help manual
mkdir : Create new folder(s)
mkfifo : Make FIFOs (named pipes)
mkisofs : Create an hybrid ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS filesystem
mknod : Make block or character special files
more : Display output one screen at a time
mount : Mount a file system
mtools : Manipulate MS-DOS files
mtr : Network diagnostics (traceroute/ping)
mv : Move or rename files or directories
mmv : Mass Move and rename (files)
N
netstat : Networking information
nice Set : the priority of a command or job
nl Number : lines and write files
nohup : Run a command immune to hangups
notify-send : Send desktop notifications
nslookup : Query Internet name servers interactively
O
open : Open a file in its default application
op : Operator access
P
passwd : Modify a user password
paste : Merge lines of files
pathchk : Check file name portability
ping : Test a network connection
pkill : Stop processes from running
popd : Restore the previous value of the current directory
pr : Prepare files for printing
printcap : Printer capability database
printenv : Print environment variables
printf : Format and print data •
ps : Process status
pushd : Save and then change the current directory
pwd : Print Working Directory
Q
quota : Display disk usage and limits
quotacheck : Scan a file system for disk usage
quotactl : Set disk quotas
R
ram : ram disk device
rcp : Copy files between two machines
read : Read a line from standard input
readarray : Read from stdin into an array variable
readonly : Mark variables/functions as readonly
reboot : Reboot the system
rename : Rename files
renice : Alter priority of running processes
remsync : Synchronize remote files via email
return : Exit a shell function
rev : Reverse lines of a file
rm : Remove files
rmdir : Remove folder(s)
rsync : Remote file copy (Synchronize file trees)
S
screen : Multiplex terminal, run remote shells via ssh
scp : Secure copy (remote file copy)
sdiff : Merge two files interactively
sed : Stream Editor
select : Accept keyboard input
seq : Print numeric sequences
set: Manipulate shell variables and functions
sftp : Secure File Transfer Program
shift : Shift positional parameters
shopt : Shell Options
shutdown : Shutdown or restart linux
sleep : Delay for a specified time
slocate : Find files
sort : Sort text files
source : Run commands from a file `.’
split : Split a file into fixed-size pieces
ssh : Secure Shell client (remote login program)
strace : Trace system calls and signals
su : Substitute user identity
sudo : Execute a command as another user
sum : Print a checksum for a file
suspend : Suspend execution of this shell
symlink : Make a new name for a file
sync : Synchronize data on disk with memory
T
tail : Output the last part of file
tar : Tape ARchiver
tee : Redirect output to multiple files
test : Evaluate a conditional expression
time : Measure Program running time
times : User and system times
touch : Change file timestamps
top : List processes running on the system
traceroute : Trace Route to Host
trap : Run a command when a signal is set(bourne)
tr : Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters
true : Do nothing, successfully
tsort : Topological sort
tty : Print filename of terminal on stdin
type : Describe a command
U
ulimit : Limit user resources
umask : Users file creation mask
umount : Unmount a device
unalias : Remove an alias
uname : Print system information
unexpand : Convert spaces to tabs
uniq : Uniquify files
units : Convert units from one scale to another
unset : Remove variable or function names
unshar : Unpack shell archive scripts
until : Execute commands (until error)
uptime : Show uptime
useradd : Create new user account
userdel : Delete a user account
usermod : Modify user account
users : List users currently logged in
uuencode : Encode a binary file
uudecode : Decode a file created by uuencode
V
v : Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b’)
vdir : Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b’)
vi : Text Editor
vmstat : Report virtual memory statistics
W
wait : Wait for a process to complete
watch : Execute/display a program periodically
wc : Print byte, word, and line counts
whereis : Search the user’s $path, man pages and source files for a program
which : Search the user’s $path for a program file
while : Execute commands
who : Print all usernames currently logged in
whoami : Print the current user id and name (`id -un’)
wget : Retrieve web pages or files via HTTP, HTTPS or FTP
write : Send a message to another user
x
xargs : Execute utility, passing constructed argument list(s)
xdg-open : Open a file or URL in the user’s preferred application.

 
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Posted by on August 28, 2015 in Uncategorized

 

How Java Differs From C And C++

Although Java was modeled after C and C++ languages, it differs from C and C++ in many ways. Java does not i a number of features available in C and C++. For the benefit of C and C++ programmers, we point out here a few major differences between C/C++ and Java language
How Java Differs From C:
Java and C
1.Java is not lot like C but the major difference between Java and C is that Java is and object-oriented language and has mechanism to define classes and objects. In an effort to build a simple and safe language, the Java team did not include some of the C features in Java.
2.Java does not include the C unique statement keywords sizeof, and
typedef.
3.Java does not contain the data type
struct and union.
4.Java does not define the type modifiers keywords
auto,extern,register,signed, and
unsigned.
5.Java does not support an explicit pointer type.
6.Java does not have a preprocessor and therefore we cannot use #
define, # include, and # ifdef statements.
7.Java requires that the functions with no arguments must be declared with empty parenthesis and not with the
void keyword as done in C.
8.Java adds new operators such as instanceof and >>>.
9.Java adds labelled break and
continue statements.
10.Java adds many features required for object-oriented programming.
How Java Differs From C++ :
Java and C++
Java is a true object-oriented language while C++ is basically C with object-oriented extension. That is what exactly the increment operator ++ indicates. C++ has maintained backward compatibility with C. Is is therefore possible to write an old style C program and run it successfully under C++. Java appears to be similar to C++ when we consider only the “extensions” part of C++. However, some object -oriented features of C++ make the C++ code extremely difficult to follow and maintain.

Listed below are some major C++ features that were intentionally omitted from java or significantly modified.
1.Java does not support operator overloading.
2.Java does not have template classes as in C++.
3.Java does not support multiple inheritance of classes. This is accomplished using a new feature called “Interface”.
4.Java does not support global variables. Every variable and method is declared within classes and forms part of that class.
5.Java does not use pointers.
6.Java has replaced the destructor function with a finalize() function.
7.There are no header files in Java.
8.Java also adds some new features. 9.While C++ is a superset of C, Java is neither a superset nor a subset of C or C++. Java may be considered as a first cousin of C++ and a second cousin of C.

So, you  got real overview on all of them.

 
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Posted by on August 18, 2015 in Uncategorized

 

Understanding Linux File Permissions

IP unreachables

A trivial topic. But some things are not like riding a bicycle, so it’s better repeating them over and over again.

To start with, let’s take a look of the output ( ls -l lists all files in a directory, giving you details about the size and the permissions) :lsl

First column: shows permissions in the order:
*Special permissions ( 1 field) – in the case of the cats file it is “d”, which actually means that cats is not a file but a directory
*Owner permissions ( 3 fields) –
the owner of the file. It can be it’s creator, or it can be manually modified. 
*Group permissions (3 fields) 

*Other’s permissions (3 fields) –
all the rest users and applications

Second column: Owner’s username – In the case of cat.txt file it is cat.
Third column: Group’s name –
 in the case of cat.txt is fefe

Special permissions.
They…

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Posted by on August 16, 2015 in Uncategorized

 

Superheroes, Crazy Clocks and Selfish Bosses: Einstein’s Theory of Special Relativity (Introduction: Part 1)

A Child's view of the World

Hi Guys!

—————————————————————————————————–

This post is finally out.

After 12 months since i started this post and more than a year since the idea of this post was conceived, it’s finally out. I’m extremely sorry about the errors and having to repost but i cannot teach the wrong thing.

I strongly believe that it’s better not to know anything than to know the wrong thing for a human can talk, a human can tell other people things which may eventually lead to :

1. Awkward situations when you try to prove your physics teacher wrong but he ends up proving you wrong.

2. Trying to impress girls with physics knowledge but getting destroyed by the nerd sitting next to you

3. Writing the wrong answer in a test resulting in unsightly scores.

All of the above situations should be avoided at all costs. So i have rewritten the post. I…

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Posted by on August 15, 2015 in Uncategorized

 

Bypass ESET. No FUD.

Bypass ESET. No FUD.
 
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Posted by on August 15, 2015 in Uncategorized

 

Do you have an idea worth spreading? Share it on video through OpenTED

Do you have an idea worth spreading? Share it on video through OpenTED

TED Blog

OpenTED_nominate_page_webYou have an idea. A good one – one that will make people think. But giving a TED Talk on a stage in front of an audience? Well, that doesn’t quite feel like the right way to express it.

If giving a traditional TED Talk isn’t your style, you may be excited to hear about The OpenTED Project— a new experimental initiative launching today to uncover ideas in all forms. Through OpenTED we’re erasing the lines around what is and isn’t a “TED Talk” and soliciting ideas that come in any form capturable on video. Through OpenTED, you can show us an idea as a documentary, an invention, an original animation, video poetry, song lyrics, monologues, dialogues, art, choreography — really, in any form you can imagine to communicate your idea to others.

The OpenTED Project is your personal invitation to share your idea — be it grand and…

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Posted by on August 14, 2015 in Uncategorized

 

No-Fee, Stock-Trading App Robinhood Is Now On Android

No-Fee, Stock-Trading App Robinhood Is Now On Android

TechCrunch

Zero-fee, stock-trading app Robinhood is now on Android. The app launched on iOS late last year and has grown to “hundreds of thousands of customers” and made over $1 billion in trades on the platform, according to the startup.

Robinhood estimates it has already saved those on the iOS platform more than $22 million in ETF, or stock-trading fees. It would like to continue doing so with Android users.

Android smartphone users nearly tie with iOS in the U.S., but the OS is particularly popular with younger generations and middle America. While stock-trading apps are nothing new on the open-source operating system, Robinhood’s new offering is an opportunity to capitalize on those users who likely want something that combines online stock without the fees with a simple and easy-to-understand design.

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The Android app is similar in most ways to the iPhone version, with a few minor tweaks unique to each OS, such as Android Lollipop’s swipe-to-trade…

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Posted by on August 13, 2015 in Uncategorized

 
 
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